Initial symptoms, causes and treatment of the Dengue fever

 Initial symptoms, causes and treatment of the Dengue fever

Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever

Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne infection that can lead to a severe flu-like illness. It is caused by four different viruses and spread by Aedes mosquitoes.

Symptoms range from mild to severe. Severe symptoms include dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). These usually require hospitalization.

There are currently no vaccines. The best method of prevention is to avoid mosquito bites. Treatment is possible if diagnosis occurs before the patient develops DSS or DHF.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that 400 millionTrusted Source people are infected each year.

Dengue fever is rare in the United States (U.S.), but around 100 cases Trusted Source are reported each year, mostly among people traveling from outside the country. Outbreaks have occurred Trusted Source in Texas, Florida, and Hawaii.

Fast facts on Dengue fever

Dengue is transmitted by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are found throughout the world.
Around 2.5 billion people, or 40 percent of the world’s population, live in areas where there is a risk of dengue transmission.

Dengue is endemic in at least 100 countries in Asia, the Pacific, the Americas, Africa, and the Caribbean.

Symptoms usually begin 4 to 7 days after the mosquito bite and typically last 3 to 10 days. Effective treatment is possible if a clinical diagnosis is made early.


Signs and symptoms

Symptoms vary depending on the severity of the disease.

Mild dengue fever

Symptoms can appear up to 7 days after being bitten by the mosquito that carries the virus.

They include:

  • aching muscles and joints
  • body rash that can disappear and then reappear
  • high fever
  • intense headache
  • pain behind the eyes
  • vomiting and feeling nauseous
  • Symptoms usually disappear after a week, and mild dengue rarely involves serious or fatal complications.

Dengue hemorrhagic fever(DHF)

At first, symptoms of DHF may be mild, but they gradually worsen within a few days. As well as mild dengue symptoms, there may be signs of internal bleeding.

A person with Dengue hemorrhagic fever may experience:

  • bleeding from the mouth, gums, or nose
  • clammy skin
  • damage to lymph and blood vessels
  • internal bleeding, which can lead to black vomit and feces, or stools
  • a lower number of platelets in the blood
  • sensitive stomach
  • small blood spots under the skin
  • weak pulse
  • Without prompt treatment, DHF can be fatal.

Dengue shock syndrome(DSS)

DSS is a severe form of dengue. It can be fatal.

Apart from symptoms of mild dengue fever, the person may experience:

  • intense stomach pain
  • disorientation
  • sudden hypotension, or a fast drop in blood pressure
  • heavy bleeding
  • regular vomiting
  • blood vessels leaking fluid
  • Without treatment, this can result in death.

Treatment

There is no specific medicine to treat dengue. Treat the symptoms of dengue and see your healthcare provider.

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