INDO-PAKISTAN water dispute

 INDO-PAKISTAN water dispute

Over several decades, the dispute between Pakistan and India over water has continued. Presently, the dispute revolves around the development of a hydro-electric plant along a Kishenganga River. Although India is preserving its right to build the dam, in this regard Pakistan is raising various issues over the project. Also, Pakistan enlightens that India is planning to divert the river course and this has adversely effects on Pakistanis who basically rely on the river. Pakistani authorities stated that this would ultimately reduce the capacity of the river by more than 30 percent during winter as a result. If it occurs, the Pakistani government decided to construct their own dam which will affect adversely. However, the dispute is about to be solved through negotiation, as both countries are hoping to see this mechanism work.
Though, the Indus Water Treaty (IWT) between the two countries created an understanding of how water between the two countries would be shared. Six rivers including Chenab, Indus, Beas, Sutlej, Ravi, and Jhelum flow from India to Pakistan. This treaty divided three rivers for use by each country, and India had the Beas, Sutlej, and Ravi. Pakistan had access to the Jhelum, Chenab, and Indus. During the 1990s, India constructed a hydro-electric plant in Doda district along the Chenab River. This river is one of the tributaries of the Indus River and was designated by the Indus Treaty for the utility purpose of Pakistan.
Whereas, the Pakistani government, political and religious leaders saw this as a move by India to control these waters. This apparently was in penetrate of the Indus Treaty and a risk to the Pakistani economy. There were several ways in which the Pakistani economy could be influenced. These include the reduction of water capacity for Pakistanis, which may badly affect agricultural and animal rearing activities. India likewise had political prevalence by having the capacity over flood Pakistan during war times through delivering overabundance water. These and other reasons increased pressure between both countries in endeavors to control this water asset. Here this paper will analyze the current status of Indo-Pakistan water dispute while shedding light on Hydro Projects and the Annual Permanent Indus Commission meeting.
The IWT was developed to solve the water dispute between Pakistan and India during the 1960s. This treaty set out, how water from the various rivers is to be divided between both nations. India was granted access to the Jhelum, Chenab, and Indus rivers for purposes of developing hydro-electricity but not allowed to construct dams. India is expected to provide technical details of projects to Pakistan before commencing operations. India on the other hand has also access to the Beas, Sutlej and Ravi rivers. For Pakistan to develop these rivers, it is similarly expected to provide India with details, before commencing operations. Therefore, when India was constructing the Baglihar Dam, Pakistan had raised several concerns during this process which includes the size, design of the dam, water capacity, and gated spillways. Although there have been argumentation on these issues, so the 1960 treaty has been inadequate in ending up the contention.
There are number of hydro projects of jummu Kashmir (J&K) which includes; The Ratle Hydroelectric project which is currently under construction on the Chenab River, downstream of the village of Ratle, near Drabshalla in Kishtwar. Kiru hydro-electric project, it is also located, in same district and is about 40 km from Kishtwar. The Kiru H E Project of 624 MW installed capacity is proposed on river Chenab and envisages construction of 135 m Dam. Pakal Dul (Drangdhuran) Project, it is a reservoir based scheme proposed on river Marusudar, the main right bank tributary of river Chenab in Kishtwar Tehsil of Doda District. Kishanganga Power station (3x110MW), is located on Kishanganga River, a tributary of river Jhelum in Bandipora District. Dulhasti power station is run-of-the-river (ROR) with pondage scheme with an installed capacity of 390 MW (3 X 130MW) to harness the hydropower potential of river Chenab. Salal power station, it is ROR scheme with an installed capacity of 690 MW (Stage-I of 3 x115 MW & Stage-II 3 X 115 MW) to binds the river Chenab. Uri hydroelectric plant, this power project is on the Jhelum River in the Uri area of Baramullah District, J&K.
Afterword’s Pakistan raised objections to the designs of Pakal Dul and Lower Kalnai hydropower plants in J&K and wanted more detail on the projects in Ladakh sanctioned after the abrogation of Article 370 as the Indus Commissioners of the two countries met on March 23. On its part, India justified its remain on the projects. The Pakal Dul Hydro Electric Project (1,000 MW) is proposed on the Marusudar river, a tributary of the Chenab river, in Kishtwar district in J&K. The Lower Kalnai project is proposed in Kishtwar and Doda districts.
The two sides also talked about other issues under the IWT during the annual Permanent Indus Commission meeting. This meeting took place after a gap of two years. It included the Indian delegation which was led by P K Saxena, India’s Indus Commissioner, and his team from the Central Water Commission, the Central Electricity Authority, and the National Hydroelectric Power Corporation. On the other hand, the Pakistani delegation was driven by its Indus Commissioner Syed Muhammad Meher Ali Shah. The delegation arrived one day before in the evening.
In nutshell, it’s understood that the rivers were evenly divided and it is expected from both of them to provide detail before commencing the operation. After two years recently meeting held between both countries in which different issues were tabled. Moreover, both nations were somewhat argumentative on the matter of hydroelectric project but the dispute is about to be resolved via negotiation, as the two sides are hopeful to see that the mechanism may work.

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